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This can be carried out on female dogs for the investigation of lower urinary tract disorders which might lead to symptoms such as repeat attempts to urinate or the appearance of blood in the urine. Although ultrasound is often the first diagnostic port of call in these cases, cystoscopy with a rigid endoscope allows the direct visualisation of the urethra and bladder and facilitates the collection of biopsy samples during the procedure. It is carried out under general anaesthesia